Journal Article Semi-comprehensive analysis of gene amplification in gastric cancers using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization

Ooi, Akishi  ,  Oyama, Takeru  ,  Nakamura, Ritsuko  ,  Tajiri, Ryousuke  ,  Ikeda, Hiroko  ,  Fushida, Sachio  ,  Nakamura, Hiroyuki  ,  Dobashi, Yoh

28 ( 6 )  , pp.861 - 871 , 2015-06-01 , Nature Publishing Group
The prognosis of patients with gastric carcinomas at an advanced stage still remains dismal, and therefore novel therapeutic modalities are urgently needed. Since the successful targeting of amplified ERBB2 with a humanized monoclonal antibody, the amplified genes of other receptor tyrosine kinases such as EGFR, FGFR2, and MET, as well as those of other cell regulator genes, are being considered as candidate targets of molecular therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine the amplification status of 26 genes, which are frequently amplified in solid cancers, in advanced gastric cancers. A total of 93 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded advanced gastric cancer tissues were examined by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification, and 32 cases with ‘gain’ or ‘amplified’ status of 16 genes were further examined for the respective gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and for the respective protein overexpression by immunohistochemistry. The frequencies of gene amplifications in advanced gastric cancers were as follows: ERBB2 (13 cases, 14%), FGFR2 (7 cases, 8%), MYC (7 cases, 8%), TOP2A (7 cases, 8%), MET (4 cases, 4%), MDM2 (4 cases, 4%), CCND1 (3 cases, 3%), FGF10 (2 cases, 3%), and EGFR (1 case, 1%). Amplification of the receptor tyrosine kinases genes occurred in a mutually exclusive manner except for one tumor in which ERBB2 and FGFR2 were both amplified but in different cancer cells. Co-amplification of ERBB2 and MYC, and EGFR and CCND1, in single nuclei but on different amplicons, was confirmed in one case each. Attempts at correlating the FISH status with the immunohistochemical staining pattern showed variable results from complete concordance to no correlation. In conclusion, combination of multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification and FISH analysis is a feasible approach for obtaining the semi-comprehensive genetic information that is necessary for personalized molecular targeted therapy.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 6 March 2015; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2015.33.

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