In this paper, I consider cost burdens of environmental conservation by voluntary involvement based on “intentional action” and “willing payment”from both the theory and the practical point of view and organize the tasks. What has been considered mainly so far as a burden of expenses required to realize environmental conservation is “payment of consideration” as one rule based on the benefit principle. However, when looking at examples of nature conservation and amenity conservation, there are many reality of cost burdens that can not be fully explained by “payment for consideration”. In other words, there are citizens who do “willing payment” for environmental conservation, not to obtain their own “economic benefits”. There are many examples of citizen’s efforts to conserve the natural environment and amenity, and each one has its own story. These stories call for further “sympathy” and calling “commitment”, the regional environment will be handed over to the next generation. It is an important role of environmental economics to approach such stories from the theory of value theory, the theory of rights and the theory of cost burden and contribute to the continuous development of regional environment.