営利法人形態による社会的企業の法的課題（2・完） : 英米におけるハイブリッド型法人の検討と日本法への示唆営利法人形態による社会的企業の法的課題（2・完） : 英米におけるハイブリッド型法人の検討と日本法への示唆AA1161370X Legal Issues of Social Enterprises Structured as For-Profit Corporations（2）: Hybrid Organizations in the United States and United Kingdom
Social enterprises are attracting a lot of public attention as key contributors in solving some of the most pressing social and environmental issues. In response, many jurisdictions throughout the world have been enacting legislation for the new forms of organizations designed for social enterprise. Several types of hybrid organizations that inject non-profit legal characteristics into their traditional for-profit corporate structures have been developed over the decade, in particular in the US and UK. This article analyzes the theoretical and practical issues of these hybrid organizations and examines whether we should introduce such new forms in Japan. Challenging experiences in the US and UK may offer valuable lessons to Japan when introducing hybrid organizations. Part III of the article analyzes a community interest company （CIC）, which the United Kingdom, as the first mover, has introduced as the special legal form for social enterprises. In contrast to hybrid organizations in the US, CIC has additional “community interest” requirements and an asset lock. In particular, establishing CIC as a company limited by shares which allows for the limited distribution of profits has provided considerable learning. Finally, Part IV explores whether new forms of organizations akin to CIC should be introduced in Japan, assuming that there is a demand for for-profit structures for social enterprises. This part concludes that it is desirable that a new, hybrid corporation should be introduced as an independent brand.