2016-04 , Russian Research Center, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University
金融統計の地理的対象はロシア帝国，ソ連，ロシア共和国の全体である．金融統計については，地域別統計情報を得ることが資料的，方法的に困難であるため，ロシアの地理的境界の変更を考慮した金融統計系列は作成できない．加えて，対象期間の大部分を占めるソ連期の金融制度が特殊であるため，金融統計指標を多国と比較することも，ロシア領域内で歴史的に比較することも困難である．ソ連期の社会主義のイデオロギーは貨幣と資本の廃絶を掲げていたのであり，後に述べるように短期間ではあるが銀行制度そのものが廃止されていた時期さえソ連期には存在していた．ソ連と市場経済の金融統計指標を比較する際には，慎重でなければならない．本稿では，まず統計指標の理解の前提となる各時期における金融制度の特徴を展望したのち，それぞれの時期の金融統計指標の特徴につい説明する． It is difficult to adjust financial statistical data to territorial changes and to compare them between Russia Empire, the Soviet Union, and Russia, mainly because the financial systems in those three periods were very different from each other and that in a market economy. There was even a period when the banking system was abolished entirely in the early 1920s, although the period lasted less than one year. The financial system in the Russian Empire developed slow in relative to that in other West-European countries and was characterized by strong influence of the government. This characteristic seemed to be carried over in to the Soviet Union until the 1960s. State budget was at the center of the Soviet financial system, while bank financing had only a minor and subsidiary role. Even in the minor bank financing, the main financial source of bank loans was government deposits. This pattern of Soviet finance changed in the mid-1960s: the weight of bank financing increased rapidly. Household deposits almost exclusively financed the increasing bank loan supply, while the government sector turned to be a net absorber of financial resources. This financial system seemed unsustainable and, indeed, it collapsed eventually. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian financial system returned to a financial system more or less ordinary to a market economy; it is, however, still in the process to establish a sound financial system. The financial data are fragmental and often incomparable, reflecting all these developments in the Russian financial system.