Journal Article 親の働き方と子供の家庭教育
Parental Employment and their Quality Time with Children

臼井, 恵美子  ,  小林, 美樹

67 ( 1 )  , pp.69 - 87 , 2016-01-26 , 岩波書店
本論文では,日本において,就業している母親と専業主婦の母親との間で,子供と共に過ごす時間に差異があるのかどうか,また,母親,及び,父親が,子供と「充実した交流時間 (quality time)」を過ごすことができているのかなど,親の働き方と子供の家庭教育との関係を検証した.具体的には,子供の勉強を親が見ること,習い事,家庭での食事,幼い子供への本の読み聞かせなどと,父親や母親の属性との関連があるのかについて,「くらしと仕事に関する調査 (LOSEF)」を用いて考察した.分析の結果,母親がフルタイムで働いている場合,母親が子供の勉強を見る頻度は下がるが,それを補うように,父親が子供の勉強を見る頻度が高くなっている.しかし,両親合計では,子供の勉強を見る頻度は全体としては低下しており,母親が子供の勉強を見る頻度が下がる分を父親がある程度補ってはいるが完全には補っていない.父親が長時間労働の場合,子供の勉強をみる頻度,及び,共に食事をする回数が少ない.また,幼い子供への本の読み聞かせは,学歴の高い父親・母親の方がより熱心に行っている.従って,父親が長時間労働を改善し,仕事と生活の調和を図るならば,より一層子供と共に過ごす時間が増える可能性がある.そうなれば,夫婦の家事育児の分担時間が母親の育児負担を軽減させる方向へ変化することになり,母親の就労を促進する可能性がある.
We use data from the Japanese Longitudinal Survey on Employment and Fertility (LOSEF) to examine the relationship between parental employment and their quality time with children. Specifically, we focus on three quality-time activities : reading together, helping with homework, and eating together. We find that while mothers working full-time spend less time helping children with homework than those who do not work full-time, fathers compensate for some of this lost quality time. Combined, however, the total time spent by parents with full-time working mothers on helping with homework is less than that of parents with stay-at home mothers; therefore, fathers make up for some but not all of the quality time lost. We also find that fathers who workover 60 hours per week spend less time on helping with homework and eating together than those who do not work more than 60 hours. Incidentally, mothers with at least some college education and fathers with a college education spend more time reading to their children than their less-educated counterparts. If fathers can reduce their long working hours, there is potential for them to increase quality time with their children. As a result, fathers might be able to help mothers reduce time with their children, thereby facilitating mothersʼ participation in the labor market.

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