The Derivational Forms and Sentence Constructions of Passives in Niger-Congo Languages
ニジェール コンゴ ゴゾク ニ オケル ドウシ ハセイケイ ト ジュドウブン
小森, 淳子 ,
Komori, Junkoコモリ, ジュンコ
53 , 2018-03-31 , 大阪大学大学院言語文化研究科 , Graduate School of Language and Culture Osaka University , オオサカ ダイガク ダイガクイン ゲンゴ ブンカ ケンキュウカ
This article examines the verb derivational forms and construction types of passives in the languages of the Niger-Congo language family in Africa. Three types of passive constructions are recognized in Niger-Congo languages: 1） Typical passive constructions, which have derivational passive verbs with a promoted patient noun as a subject and a deleted or demoted agent noun as an adjunct. This type is typically found in Bantu languages, which have the most abundant derivational verb morphology in the family. 2） Impersonal passive constructions, which have an impersonal subject in an active sentence with a patient noun as an object. This type is the most widely attested throughout the family, from West African languages to Bantu languages. 3） Other “passive-like” constructions, which have transitive/ intransitive verbs with a patient noun as a subject and an arbitral agent noun as an adjunct. This type is primarily found in the Mande and Gur language branches in West Africa and can be seen as the ultimate construction for passives with a patient noun as a subject and no morphological changes to the verb.