Technical Report 20世紀初頭米国の内務省開墾部・局の役割 : 最初の5事業の農作物収益額に対して

日高, 卓朗  ,  Hidaka, Takuro  ,  ヒダカ, タクロウ

17-32pp.1 - 26 , 2017-11 , Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP)
The US Reclamation Service (1902-1923) and Bureau of Reclamation (1923 - ) of the Department of Interior conducted many reclamation projects in the west. This paper examines the first five of them, with special focuses on the role played by this federal agency for the agricultural revenue per acre in each project area. The profitability seems to have been affected by (1) the profit from industrial crops, such as sugar beets and cotton, (2) national trends of agricultural prices, (3) local, geographical factors of each area (precipitation excluded). It should be borne in mind that the two agencies were reluctant to be directly involved in improvement of the agricultural conditions in the region, though they showed some interests in agriculture itself. As a result, choices of crops, solution of inundation damage, improvement of agricultural knowledge, and other challenges in the local agriculture were left to the private sector and other authorities. We can find some of their contributions, but their role was confined to irrigation for agricultural water supply partly because the officials were ill-prepared at the initial stage and mainly because of the small budget. However, the irrigation had fundamental importance for the future development in each region. It was the foundation for the mixed agriculture of fodder crops and animal husbandry, and cultivation of industry crops which brought in much higher cash income. Based on this foundation, later development projects, conducted by other Federal and local offices, private companies as well as individual farmers, were made possible. While the contributions made by the reclamation agencies were limited, their construction of water infrastructure had considerable significance.
本稿では米国の内務省開墾部・局が行った最初期の 5 つの水資源開発事業について,1902 年から1928 年を分析期間として設定し,開墾部・局が事業領域の1 エーカーあたり農作 物収益額に果たした役割を検討した。その結果次のことが明らかとなった。1 エーカーあたり農作物収益額は,工芸作物による収益,米国全体の農作物価格の傾向,降水量を除く各事業の位置に独自の要素の影響を受けて推移した。しかし,開墾部・局は農業に関心を持ちながら,工芸作物を含む農作物栽培,浸水被害の解決,農業知識の向上など農業状態の改善をもたらす要素に積極的に貢献することはなかった。貢献は皆無では無かったが,開始期の準備不足による影響と,直接的には資金不足により,農業に関心を向けた後もその役割は灌漑用水供給が殆どであった。つまり,期間中に5 事業の開墾部・局が農作物収益に対して果たした役割とは,灌漑用水供給を通じた,畜産業と結びついた農作物栽培や,工芸作物等の高収益な作物の栽培を可能とする,基礎の整備であった。この基礎により,農務省,鉄道会社や製糖会社等の民間企業,農家の積極的な活動が可能となった。

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