投稿論文 In China today, a dual-image regarding Japan can be perceived, with a pro-Japan sentiment towards its economic and cultural issues, and an anti-Japan sentiment on political issues. This social phenomenon should be considered in terms of the process of Reform and Opening, which brought rapid changes to the political and social situation in modern China. This article focuses on the Chinese intellectuals who are sensitive to these changes, and analyzes their views on Japan from 1978 to 1989, the first 10 years of Reform and Opening. Through their views on Japan, this article will examine how the Chinese intellectuals'understanding of Japan was determined by their thinking on China's political and social situation. This approach will not only help us to understand the reason why the Chinese maintain a dual-image regarding Japan, but it will also be the key to uncovering how current misunderstandings between China and Japan developed.