||国内的救済原則の例外 : 国連国際法委員会外交的保護条文の検討を中心に
Exceptions to the Local Remedies Rule : A Study on the ILC Draft Articles on Diplomatic Protection
コクナイテキ キュウサイ ゲンソク ノ レイガイ コクレン コクサイホウ イインカイ ガイコウテキ ホゴ ジョウブン ノ ケントウ ヲ チュウシン ニ
山下, 朋子 ,
ヤマシタ, トモコYamashita, Tomoko
23 , 2016-09 , 大阪大学大学院国際公共政策研究科 , オオサカ ダイガク ダイガクイン コクサイ コウキョウ セイサク ケンキュウカ
The local remedies rule is an important principle of customary international law requiring the exhaustion of local remedies as a prerequisite for submitting international claims. Despite a well-established rule, its scope of application remains unclear. This is especially questioned in practice for circumstances where local remedies do not need to be exhausted. Against this backdrop, this article examines the exceptions to the local remedies rule by analyzing doctrinal debates and judicial practices with a special focus on the Draft Articles on Diplomatic Protection codified by the International Law Commission. Theoretically, the exceptions are divided into two groups : first,procedural exceptions of the rule based on unavailability of the local remedies caused by intrinsic or extrinsic reasons; and second, a substantial exception deriving from the conceptual difference between 'direct injury'and 'indirect injury.' Claimant States strategically invoke the substantial exception at the ICJ in order to bring international claims before exhausting the local remedies for sufferings of their nationals, notably after Avena judgment. By updating the argument of Professor Kanae Taijyudo in 1964,this article suggests that certain exceptions are disputable even in treaty-based dispute settlement mechanisms, notably in investor-state arbitrations.