This article reviews previous studies concerning conditioning and learning in older adults. An interesting topic within older adults’learning ability, the field of classical conditioning and verbal learning,began to increase in popularity about 15 years ago following the development of associative learning. On the other hand, instrumental conditioning research was well-polished with the expansion of basic and applied behavior analysis. This paper presents recent studies in this area and outlines the key differences between young and elderly people in terms of learning ability. The theoretical framework of“associative learning" and “behavior analysis”may be useful not only for psychological study but also for many areas in gerontological research. Some implications of behavioral aging in human learning for future reresearch are discussed.