48 , 2018-02-28 , Division of Physhology, Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba , 筑波大学人間系心理学域
In this experimental study, we seek to elucidate the effects of both emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness on prosocial behavior towards outsiders. The participants (N = 54) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a gratitude condition, where participants were induced to experience considerable emotional gratitude and minimal emotional indebtedness; an indebtedness condition, where participants were induced to experience both considerable emotional gratitude and emotional indebtedness; and a neutral condition, where participants were not induced to experience either emotional gratitude or indebtedness. All participants were then requested by a confederate to complete a questionnaire as indicator of prosocial behavior. The results revealed no significant differences between and no interactions among the three conditions. These findings highlight the need to reconsider both the validity of any manipulations of emotional gratitude and indebtedness and how to measure prosocial behavior towards outsiders.