||Pseudophyllomitus vesiculosus (Larsen and Patterson 1990) Lee, 2002, a Poorly Studied Phagotrophic Biflagellate is the First Characterized Member of Stramenopile Environmental Clade MAST-6
Shiratori, Takashi ,
Thakur, RabindraIshida, Ken-ichiro
451 , 2017-08 , Elsevier
There are many eukaryotic lineages that are exclusively composed of environmental sequences and lack information about which species are included. Regarding stramenopiles, at least 18 environmental lineages, known as marine stramenopiles (MAST), have been recognized. Since each MAST lineage forms deep branches in the stramenopiles, the characterization of MAST members is key to understanding the diversity and evolution of stramenopiles. In this study, we established a culture of Pseudophyllomitus vesiculosus, which is a poorly studied phagotrophic flagellate of uncertain taxonomic position. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences robustly supported the inclusion of P. vesiculosus in the MAST-6 clade. Our microscopic observations indicated that P. vesiculosus shared characteristics with stramenopiles, including an anterior flagellum that exhibits sinusoidal waves and bears tubular mastigonemes. The flagellar apparatus of P. vesiculosus was also similar to that of other stramenopiles in having a transitional helix and five microtubular roots (R1–R4 and S tubules) including R2 that split into two bands. On the other hand, P. vesiculosus was distinguished from other deep-branching stramenopiles by the combination of flagellar apparatus characteristics. Based on the phylogenetic analyses and microscopic observations, we established Pseudophyllomitidae fam. nov in stramenopiles.