Departmental Bulletin Paper 〈原著論文〉世界遺産登録における吉野の評価に関する研究

渡邉, 真菜美  ,  伊藤, 弘

4pp.18 - 31 , 2017-08 , 筑波大学大学院人間総合科学研究科世界遺産専攻・世界文化遺産学専攻
ISSN:2189-4728
Description
本研究は、奈良県・吉野を事例に、国史、山岳信仰、桜の鑑賞、林業など地域の多様で複雑な背景に対する世界遺産登録の評価を分析し、国際的な評価と地域の実態との乖離を検証することを試みた。地形図やGISに基づく景観の成立過程の把握、および世界遺産登録に関係する国内外の公式資料の調査を行った。吉野の森林は林業によって形成され、修験道の山岳修行の道である大峯奥駈道周辺は、戦後の森林施業で人工のスギ林に囲まれた空間へと変化してきた。しかし、世界遺産登録において、UNESCOやICOMOSでは吉野の森林が高く評価され、その神聖性が強調されていた。地域の多様な背景のうち一部が注目され、かつ、人の営みで成立してきたという実態とは異なる理解がなされていたことが明らかとなった。
Seeking to protect international and universal values, the World Heritage highlights specific aspect of diverse and complicated backgrounds of a local place. Assessing what aspect was valued and what was not at the World Heritage inscription is important in understanding a local place as a whole. Yoshino as part of the World Heritage site "The Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes of the Kii Mountain Range" involves associations with national history, a history of mountain ascetic belief, an appreciation as a scenic cherry blossom site, and traditional forestry activities unique in this region. This research analyses evaluations on the diverse backgrounds of Yoshino made at the World Heritage inscription, to figure out the discrepancy between the international and the local. It utilized topographical maps and GIS data to identify spatial transitions of a landscape of Yoshino. It then reviewed documents related to the World Heritage inscription from UNESCO, ICOMOS and the Japanese Government to see which aspect was highly valued. Spatial analysis discovered that a landscape around O-mine Oku-gake Michi, a training path across mountains for the ascetic religion, has changed over the 20t h century. Views from the path previously included a wide view to distant mountains but due to development of forestry activities, now they are entirely enclosed surrounded by planted cedar forests. On the other hand, evaluations by UNESCO and ICOMOS featured the ascetic belief and particularly emphasized sacredness of forests. While not recognizing the fact that the forest in Yoshino is mostly an artificial plantation developed over time due to the human intervention, the World Heritage inscription associated the forests with religious ascetic practices. This revealed a discrepancy between an international understanding on a local area and the local reality, which the international focused on one specific aspect of local diversities and failed to grasp exact background of the highlighted aspect.
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