Journal Article Enlarged mediastinal air cyst in a patient with bronchial diverticula localized in the left main bronchus: a case report with surgical and bronchoscopic findings

Ichimura, Hideo  ,  Ozawa, Yuichiro  ,  Shiigai, Masanari  ,  Shiotani, Seiji  ,  Kikuchi, Kazunori  ,  Sato, Yukio

3p.1 , 2017-01 , Springer
BackgroundA mediastinal air cyst is a rare computed tomography (CT) finding. Once the lesion is identified, it is difficult to diagnose and treat. Meanwhile, bronchial diverticula have been reported as a CT finding observed in certain pulmonary pathologic conditions. We encountered the case of an enlarged mediastinal air cyst accompanied with bronchial diverticula and upper lobe-dominant fibrous changes of the lung.Case presentationA 69-year-old man with a chronic cough who had regularly visited a chest physician for upper lobe-dominant pulmonary fibrosis was referred to our hospital for the examination of an enlarged mediastinal air cyst. Chest CT exhibited an air cyst (size, 30 mm) connected to the lumen of the left main bronchus (LMB) and multiple tiny outpouches only on the LMB. Flexible bronchoscopy showed bubbling from slits or indentations of the bronchial mucosa only in the LMB but not in the right main bronchus or lobar bronchus. For therapeutic diagnosis, we removed the air cyst. Based on clinical, surgical, and pathological findings, we diagnosed the air cyst as an enlarged bronchial diverticulum.ConclusionsThis is the first case wherein bronchoscopic and surgical findings of bronchial diverticula and an enlarged bronchial diverticulum are reported. There are possible pathogenic mechanisms in cases of pulmonary disease that are attributable to enlargement of the bronchial diverticula.

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