Departmental Bulletin Paper 配慮表現としての「とか」について
The Study of Expressions of Consideration ‘Toka’

山下, 悠貴乃

(38)  , pp.127 - 138 , 2017-03-31 , 筑波大学人文社会科学研究科 国際地域研究専攻
'Toka' is a method originally used to show examples in the form '~toka~toka' to connect nouns and predicates in parallel. However, 'toka' is used in a different way to express one element showing either ambiguity or emphasis. Previous research on the use of 'toka' in interpersonal communications consideration in the ambiguous way have been conducted but there have not been adequate research regarding its use as an emphasis method in interpersonal communications. This research, as a research in expressions of consideration aims to study how has the word 'toka' come to acquire this method of usage in interpersonal communications. We used corpora of materials we collected and extracted 8 examples on the usage of “toka” and its functions in interpersonal communications in regard to both the speaker and the listener. After classifying the usage of 'toka', we analyzed its functions in interpersonal communications based on the origins of the expression of consideration.The result of the analysis has allowed us to understand the characteristics on how the mechanisms of 'toka' work in interpersonal communications. As for the ambiguity method, this method occurs in the volition of the listener and it is used as a word to have the listener carry out a certain action, so that it works as an expression method which fulfills the fact of 'say something to place the burden on the listener' which is the origin of expression of consideration. In contrast, the emphasis method is rather dependent on the context. It is used as a verbal behavior for some kind of evaluation/ Moreover, it works as an expression of consideration.

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