Journal Article Distinctive features of single nucleotide alterations in induced pluripotent stem cells with different types of DNA repair deficiency disorders

Okamura, Kohji  ,  Sakaguchi, Hironari  ,  Sakamoto-Abutani, Rie  ,  Nakanishi, Mahito  ,  Nishimura, Ken  ,  Yamazaki-Inoue, Mayu  ,  Ohtaka, Manami  ,  Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan  ,  Alshatwi, Ali Abdullah  ,  Higuchi, Akon  ,  Hanaoka, Kazunori  ,  Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko  ,  Takada, Shuji  ,  Hata, Kenichiro  ,  Toyoda, Masashi  ,  Umezawa, Akihiro

6p.26342 , 2016-05 , Nature Publishing Group
Disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been used as a model to analyze pathogenesis of disease. In this study, we generated iPSCs derived from a fibroblastic cell line of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) group A (XPA-iPSCs), a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease in which patients develop skin cancer in the areas of skin exposed to sunlight. XPA-iPSCs exhibited hypersensitivity to ultraviolet exposure and accumulation of single-nucleotide substitutions when compared with ataxia telangiectasia-derived iPSCs that were established in a previous study. However, XPA-iPSCs did not show any chromosomal instability in vitro, i.e. intact chromosomes were maintained. The results were mutually compensating for examining two major sources of mutations, nucleotide excision repair deficiency and double-strand break repair deficiency. Like XP patients, XPA-iPSCs accumulated single-nucleotide substitutions that are associated with malignant melanoma, a manifestation of XP. These results indicate that XPA-iPSCs may serve a monitoring tool (analogous to the Ames test but using mammalian cells) to measure single-nucleotide alterations, and may be a good model to clarify pathogenesis of XP. In addition, XPA-iPSCs may allow us to facilitate development of drugs that delay genetic alteration and decrease hypersensitivity to ultraviolet for therapeutic applications.

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