Journal Article Curvature of the freeze-out line in heavy ion collisions

Bazavov, A.  ,  Ding, H.-T.  ,  Hegde, P.  ,  Kaczmarek, O.  ,  Karsch, F.  ,  Laermann, E.  ,  Mukherjee, Swagato  ,  Ohno, H.  ,  Petreczky, P.  ,  Schmidt, C.  ,  Sharma, S.  ,  Soeldner, W.  ,  Wagner, M.

93 ( 1 )  , p.014512 , 2016-01 , American Physical Society
We calculate the mean and variance of net-baryon number and net-electric charge distributions from quantum chromodynamics (QCD) using a next-to-leading order Taylor expansion in terms of temperature and chemical potentials. We compare these expansions with experimental data from STAR and PHENIX, determine the freeze-out temperature in the limit of vanishing baryon chemical potential, and, for the first time, constrain the curvature of the freeze-out line through a direct comparison between experimental data on net-charge fluctuations and a QCD calculation. We obtain a bound on the curvature coefficient, κf2<0.011, that is compatible with lattice QCD results on the curvature of the QCD transition line.

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