Journal Article Characterization of nitrogen species incorporated into graphite using low energy nitrogen ion sputtering

Kiuchi, Hisao  ,  Kondo, Takahiro  ,  Sakurai, Masataka  ,  Guo, Donghui  ,  Nakamura, Junji  ,  Niwa, Hideharu  ,  Miyawaki, Jun  ,  Kawai, Maki  ,  Oshima, Masaharu  ,  Harada, Yoshihisa

18 ( 1 )  , pp.458 - 465 , 2016-01 , The Royal Society of Chemistry
The electronic structures of nitrogen species incorporated into highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), prepared by low energy (200 eV) nitrogen ion sputtering and subsequent annealing at 1000 K, were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), angle-dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and Raman spectroscopy. An additional peak was observed at higher binding energy of 401.9 eV than 400.9 eV for graphitic1 N (graphitic N in the basal plane) in N 1s XPS, where graphitic2 N (graphitic N in the zigzag edge and/or vacancy sites) has been theoretically expected to appear. N 1s XPS showed that graphitic1 N and graphitic2 N were preferably incorporated under low nitrogen content doping conditions (8 × 1013 ions cm−2), while pyridinic N and graphitic1 N were dominantly observed under high nitrogen content doping conditions. In addition, angle-dependent N 1s XAS showed that the graphitic N and pyridinic N atoms were incorporated into the basal plane of HOPG and thus were highly oriented. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy revealed that low energy sputtering resulted in almost no fraction of the disturbed graphite surface layers under the lowest nitrogen doping condition. The suitable nitrogen doping condition was discovered for realizing the well-controlled nitrogen doped HOPG. The electrochemical properties for the oxygen reduction reaction of these samples in acidic solution were examined and discussed.

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