Journal Article Growth differentiation factor 15 as a useful biomarker for mitochondrial disorders

Yatsuga, Shuichi  ,  Fujita, Yasunori  ,  Ishii, Akiko  ,  Fukumoto, Yoshihiro  ,  Arahata, Hajime  ,  Kakuma, Tatsuyuki  ,  Kojima, Toshio  ,  Ito, Masafumi  ,  Tanaka, Masashi  ,  Saiki, Reo  ,  Koga, Yasutoshi

78 ( 5 )  , pp.814 - 823 , 2015-11 , Wiley-Liss
ObjectiveThe diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders (MDs) is occasionally difficult because patients often present with solitary, or a combination of, symptoms caused by each organ insufficiency, which may be the result of respiratory chain enzyme deficiency. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) has been reported to be elevated in serum of patients with MDs. In this study, we investigated whether GDF-15 is a more useful biomarker for MDs than several conventional biomarkers.MethodsWe measured the serum levels of GDF-15 and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), as well as other biomarkers, in 48 MD patients and in 146 healthy controls in Japan. GDF-15 and FGF-21 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and compared with lactate, pyruvate, creatine kinase, and the lactate-to-pyruvate ratio. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and also evaluated the correlation based on two rating scales, including the Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Rating Scale (NMDAS).ResultsMean GDF-15 concentration was 6-fold higher in MD patients compared to healthy controls (2,711 ± 2,459 pg/ml vs 462.5 ± 141.0 pg/mL; p < 0.001). Using a receiver operating characteristic curve, the area under the curve was significantly higher for GDF-15 than FGF-21 and other conventional biomarkers. Our date suggest that GDF-15 is the most useful biomarker for MDs of the biomarkers examined, and it is associated with MD severity.InterpretationOur results suggest that measurement of GDF-15 is the most useful first-line test to indicate the patients who have the mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency. Ann Neurol 2015;78:Ann Neurol 2015;78:679–696

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