The purpose of this study is to examine how single fathers recognize the gender ideology about child \rearing. Qualitative research methodology was utilized in this study. The semi-structured interviews were \conducted from 14 Single Fathers who divorced. They had preschool children when they divorced. They \live in Kawasaki, near Tokyo in Japan. The period of research was from January to May 2015.\In Japan, it was usual that mothers got the parental authorities when couples were divorced, so \it was found that Single Fathers regarded living with their children as special cases. Second, there \were some kinds of diﬃculties for Single Fathers to raise their children. They felt gender inequalities \between single mothers and single fathers. Finally, it was found that single fathers recognized those \diﬃculties as the results of “self responsibilities”. They were aware of diﬀerences between single fathers \who divorced and who lost their wives.