Departmental Bulletin Paper 若年正社員の長時間労働と就業継続意欲 : 職務特性と上司の管理マネジメント特性に着目して
Overtime Work and the Desire for Continued Employment Among Young Full-time Employees: Focusing on Workplace Factors

菅原, 佑香

22pp.47 - 64 , 2015-11-02 , お茶の水女子大学生活社会科学研究会
本研究では,残業時間と若年正社員の就業について,職場の要因に着目して\検討を試みる.労働時間が長時間化することが就業意欲へはマイナスの効果\をもたらすと考えられるが,職場の人間関係や上司の仕事の与え方といった職\場のサポート的な要因が加わることにより,若年正社員の残業時間および企業\内での就業継続意欲へ与える影響を明らかにすることを目的とする.分析方法\は,既存調査の二次分析を通して,明らかにする.使用データは,JILPT が\2010 年2 月に郵送モニターを利用してアンケート調査を実施した「労働時間\に関する調査」である.分析の結果,以下三点が明らかとなった.\ 第一に,男女ともに,技能多様性がある仕事に従事する結果として,残業時\間が長時間化する.\ 第二に,仕事内容が明確であることは,男女ともに,同一企業内での就業継\続意欲を高めていた.つまり,仕事の範囲や目標がはっきりしていることは,\若年層のように,管理職のポジションに従事していない立場にとっては,就業\継続をする上での重要な要素になっているものと思われる.\第三に,男性の場合には,上司のサポートが就業継続意欲へ重要な役割を果た\していることが分かった.ただし,女性の場合は,有意な上司の管理マネジ\メントの効果を観察することは出来なかった.男性に比較し,女性は上司のサ\ポートを受けていない可能性があるだろう.\ 本分析からはこれ以上の要因を探ることは出来ないが,今後は女性でより有\用な就業継続意欲のサポート要因について,上司の管理マネジメントに加え,\職場全体の仕組みとして,検討を行っていく必要があるだろう.
 This research attempts to investigate overtime work and the employment of young full-time\employees with a focus on workplace factors. Although extended working hours are thought to have a\negative effect on the desire to work, the aim of this research is to clarify how overtime work and the\desire for continued employment at the same company among young full-time employees is influenced\by supportive workplace factors such as human relationships in the workplace and the distribution of\work from superiors.\ A secondary analysis of an existing investigation was conducted as the analytical method. The data\used was a“ Working Hours Survey” implemented by JILPT in February 2010 using a mail monitor.\The results of the analysis clarified the following three items.\ First, for both men and women, extended overtime work significantly increases the desire for\continued employment at the same company. Extended overtime work may increase the desire for\continued employment at the same company among men, even if the overtime work contributes little\to the company and has no worth in the company, or the amount of overtime is unreasonable due to\management issues arising from work itself or superiors.\ Second, the desire for continued employment at the same company was higher among men and\women in jobs that require diverse skills, such as planning and decision-making, and in jobs with\clearly defined details. In other words, clearly defining the scope of work and job targets is an\important factor in continued employment for those who are not engaged in management positions,\such as young employees.\ Third, it was found that the support of superiors plays an important role in the desire for continued\employment among men. However, no significant effects of management by superiors were observed\on women. It may be that women receive less support from superiors than men.\ No other factors were explored in this analysis, so an investigation must be carried out in the\future regarding important factors that support the desire for continued employment among women,\including general workplace structures in addition to management by superiors.

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