On the Role of the Feelings in J.S.Mill’s Utilitarianism
51 , 2015-03-31 , お茶の水女子大学大学院人間文化創成科学研究科
The purpose of this paper is to show that our feelings and moral sentiments play an important part\in Mill’s Utilitarianism. Mill's utilitarianism is significantly different from that of Bentham in some\respects. Mill notices the variety of quality in pleasures. He associated the ideas of freedom and justice\with utilitarianism.\ Often, human feelings are regarded as something which disturbs the function of reason, but Mill did\not think that way. According to Mill, the feelings are indispensable to cultivate morality and virtue,\and both are needed to our happy. In utilitarianism, the feelings function as internal sanction and a\force which supports the notion of justice.\ We can see from these that his utilitarianism is not only built upon utility only, but based on various\feelings, particularly, fully cultivated and fertile sentiments.\ What Mill emphasizes in his utilitarianism is not ‘happiness’ mechanically estimated by the hedonic\calculus but a variety of diverse happiness which would satisfy fully cultivated and fertile sentiments\of each individual.\ From Mill’s point, people should aim their proper happiness which varies from person to person, and\the qualitative variety of pleasure and other feelings are indispensable to the variety of one’s own\happiness.