Departmental Bulletin Paper バスク語の自動詞分裂と二言語使用
Split Intransitivity and Bilingualism in Basque

石塚, 政行

38 ( TULIP )  , pp.65 - 85 , 2017-09-30 , 東京大学大学院人文社会系研究科・文学部言語学研究室
Basque has two distinct patterns of marking intransitivity: Type A intransitives prototypically take an absolutive-marked patientive argument and select the existential auxiliary verb izan, while Type B intransitives take an ergative subject and select the possessive auxiliary verb *edun. Western varieties clearly distinguish the two types, whereas in eastern dialects, Type B verbs are narrowly confined and considered to be exceptional. Varieties spoken between the two areas diplay an intermediate pattern. Historically speaking, Eastern Basque is conservative compared to Western Basque. This paper presents data contributed by a speaker from the area where central and eastern varieties meet, focusing on intransitive verbs that seem to have been borrowed recently from French. Type B verbs account for less than 10% of the intransitives sampled. Among those Type B verbs that have not been borrowed recently are two major groups: inanimate emission verbs and atelic directed motion verbs. I argue that these semantic groups are highly salient in the speaker's grammatical knowledge, drawing on the patterns in which the borrowed intransitives are categorized as either Type A or Type B. Inanimate emission verbs and atelic directed motion verbs that were recently borrowed must be marked as Type B, while other loan verbs can but need not be marked as such when the French counterparts select avoir 'have' as perfect auxiliary. Borrowed intransitives are always marked as Type A if their French equivalents select etre 'be'. These patterns also suggest that the correspondence between Basque and French split intransitive systems can be established even when Type B intransitives are a small minority.
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