Departmental Bulletin Paper [NP by which]構文を使いこなすために必要なもの : 理解と記憶のメンタル・コーパス
What is Needed to Have a Full Command of the [NP by which] Construction : The Mental Corpus by Which to Remember and Understand it

平沢, 慎也

38 ( 1 )  , pp.25 - 49 , 2017-09-30 , 東京大学大学院人文社会系研究科・文学部言語学研究室
NP by which … という名詞相当語句は,NP … by which からのby whichの移動という考え方では説明がつかないような独自の使用法を確立している(e.g., There are many ways by which one can do …)。これは[NP by which]構文と呼ぶべきものの存在を示唆している。この構文の表す意味には,前置詞byが他のところで担っている意味が関わっているので,[NP by which]構文における前置詞byの使用は動機づけられていると言える。しかし,だからといって,byが[NP by which]構文以外のところでどのように振る舞っているかを知っていれば[NP by which]構文の振る舞いが予測可能になるわけではない。特に,NPスロットを埋める名詞句の主要部となる名詞の種類および頻度分布は,おそらく英語に関する他のいかなる事実からも予測不可能なものであり,「[NP by which]構文に参与する名詞」というカテゴリーのメンバーを(少なくとも高頻度なものについては)1つ1つ覚える必要がある。一言で言えば,[NP by which]構文を使いこなすには[NP by which]構文をメンタル・コーパスに登録する他ないということである。
The nominal NP by which … has its own well-established usage patterns which cannot be explained by reference to the movement of by which from NP … by which (e.g., There are many ways by which one can …), suggesting the existence of what may be called the [NP by which] construction. The use of by in this construction is semantically motivated in that the meanings of the construction involve some of the meanings which the preposition conveys elsewhere. This does not mean, however, that the behavior of the construction can be fully predicted on the basis of the attested usage patterns exhibited by the preposition outside the construction. Of particular note are the set and frequency distribution of nouns that fill the NP slot of the construction. These probably cannot be derived from any other facts of English. The members, at least high-frequency members, of this category must be specifically learned as such. In a nutshell, to have a full command of the construction, one has to register it in his mental corpus.
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