Departmental Bulletin Paper 価値の量的表現論
Expressing Value Quantitatively : The Basis of the Value-Form

江原, 慶

82 ( 1 )  , pp.41 - 63 , 2017-07-01 , 東京大学大学院経済学研究科
ISSN:0022-9768
NCID:AN00070411
Description
価値形態論は,日本のマルクス経済学が世界に誇るべき研究蓄積を持つとともに,マルクス経済学原理論の体系において根幹に位置する領域である.戦後日本において大きな影響力を持った宇野弘蔵の価値形態論は,不確定な市場を理論化するための重要な起点となっていたが,現代的な資産市場の動態を前に,その説明力を失いつつある.本稿ではその不十分さを直視し,価値形態論の現代的意義を再構築すべく,宇野が批判対象としていた『資本論』のテキストに戻り,再批判を試みる.その際,戦後日本の最大級の論争であった宇野と久留間鮫造の間の価値形態論争を振り返り,価値形態の量的側面を取り去り質的側面に焦点を絞る質量二分法的方法の限界を確認する.その上で,宇野の価値形態論のロジックから,ある商品の価値を別の商品と比較する表現を,価値形態の基礎として取り出す.商品所有者は,ある商品を欲しいと思ったその瞬間に,その商品を手に入れるのに対して自らの手許の資産が足りるかどうかという,価値に関する量的比較を初源的に遂行している.市場とは,単なる商品交換ではなく,こうした比較表現を等置表現へと固めていく量的関係が結ばれていく場なのである.
Value-Form analysis is the most fundamental in the principles of Marxian political economy and Japan has the most fruitful history of studying value-form in the world. Among them, Kozo Uno’s achievement was influential since his critique of Marx’s value-form analysis gave a clue for capturing the feature of the market in capitalism, but is now losing its momentum due to the lack of an insight into contemporary phenomena such as the fluctuation in asset prices. In order to overcome the deficiency, we shall go back to the text of Capital and try to re-criticise it. In addition, we shall look into the most fierce debate on the Marxian political economy in post-WWII Japan, so-called Uno- Kuruma debate, and conclude that it is not appropriate to leave a quantitative aspect of value-form to focus just on its qualitative aspect. Quantity matters, at least in an economic study, as Uno suggested. Though the value-form has been assumed to be an equality, it can be fundamentally described as a comparative expression of value. As soon as one wants something, s/he compares it with the total value of their assets, wondering whether it is enough for getting what s/he wants. The market is not a field of commodity exchange, but of establishing a quantitative relationship, in which these comparatives turn into equations.
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