Journal Article 検定ブームの制度的秩序 : 〈関係づけられる試験〉の自己準拠性
The Institutional Order of the Boom in Kentei Examinations : Self-Reference Based on "Linked Examinations"

武内, 建人

26pp.21 - 34 , 2017-03-01 , 東京大学大学院総合文化研究科国際社会科学専攻
ISSN:09159312
NCID:AN10181474
Description
Examinations are the most popular ways to evaluate that connect an individual’s ability to her or his social or economic status. Particularly in Japan, examinations often are so competitive and difficult that people use negative terms for them, such as "Examination Hell." On the other hand, during the boom in kentei examinations(kentei boom)in the late 2000s, kentei did not necessarily provide opportunities to improve status and examinees treated it like a form of entertainment. However, kentei did not become a form of entertainment; it still had characteristics of objective evaluations. This paper aims to clarify the ways that the validity of evaluation remains in the kentei boom by describing its institutional order. This paper uses the idea of "Linked Examinations," which focuses on self-references based on linkages among examinations. Each kentei usually consists of several grades, such as "Grade 1," "Grade 2," and so on. Although each grade primarily indicates a relative level of proficiency in a specifi c area of knowledge or skill, some people assume that grades with the same number indicate the same level. Through this cognitive linkage, people can assess the extent of proficiency by imagining generalized criteria without referring to the original criteria established in each kentei.
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