Journal Article 自由・安全・補完性 : ドイツ社会国家の正当化論理をめぐる意味論的考察
Liberty, Security, and Subsidiarity : A Semantic Analysis of Justifi cation Logics for the Germen Social State

坂井, 晃介

26pp.3 - 19 , 2017-03-01 , 東京大学大学院総合文化研究科国際社会科学専攻
This paper aims to clarify the basic concepts surrounding the historical development of the German welfare state (Sozialstaat) from the perspective of semantic analysis, a method employed in the field of the sociology of knowledge. The central idea of the Sozialstaat is the principle of "subsidiarity," which is the political obligation for a government to intervene in small communities only if those communities lose autonomous capacity. Although previous studies have examined the origin of "subsidiarity," they have tended to reduce the understanding of its emergence to the rise and effects of German social Catholicism since an encyclical in 1891 (Rerum novarum) , and overlook the semantic premises shared by multiple sociopolitical actors despite their differing perspectives and contexts. This paper traces how "subsidiarity" was generated via the legalization of German social insurance through debates about social problems (poverty and bad conditions for factory workers) , spurred on by social activists and politicians from the 1850s to 1880s. Starting in the 1860s, particularly in Prussia, the necessity to promote the corrective autonomy of workers was executed through the legalization process. This necessity went beyond antagonism toward solutions to the problems and was caught between the liberal concept of self-help (Selbsthilfe) and the conservative notion of state assistance (Staatshilfe) . Thus, the concept of subsidiarity was oriented not only in relation to the concerns of German social Catholicism but also in relation to the legalization process under diverse opposing forces, which had developed earlier than German social Catholicism.

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