||公立学校の多様化とアカウンタビリティ政策の展開 : ワシントンD.C.を事例として
Diversification of Public Schools and Development of Accountability Policies : Through the Case of Washington, D.C.
大桃, 敏行 ,
吉良, 直 ,
堀, ひかり ,
宮口, 誠矢金子, 友紀
444 , 2016-03-31 , 東京大学大学院教育学研究科 , The Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo , 東京大学大学院教育学研究科学校開発政策コース , 日本教育大学院大学学校教育研究科
The purpose of this article is to reexamine characteristics of curriculums and the current status of implementing teacher evaluation in the context of diversification of public schools and rigid accountability policies in Washington, D.C. in the United States. Our major findings and arguments based on a case study of three different types of public (regular, magnet, and charter) schools are as follows. First, the three public schools are implementing diverse forms of curriculums with an emphasis on inquiry and collaboration. Second, the teacher evaluation system in D.C. is limited in the number and proportion of teachers who are subject to the value-added measures based on the growth of student test scores. Third, the contents of the tests used to calculate the value-added measures have been changed, and the PARCC tests, developed by a national consortium to measure student higherorder thinking skills, etc., were already used in school year 2014-15. The existing literature on U.S. education reform mostly focuses on its negative aspects, such as narrowly-focused curriculum, punitive teacher evaluation, market-driven reform, etc., but this study showed the importance of digging deeper into details of school practices which may shed light on complex and new realities of school reform.