Deciding not to have a child leads to childless status throughout the life span. However, relatively little is known about the long-term women’s experience of being childless after the choice. The present paper aimed to report a brief review of research that explored how women’s experience of being childless affects their psychological aspects, throughout the life. First, the article reviews the process of becoming childless, focusing on women during and a few years after their infertility treatment. Next, it presents of the review of empirical research on psychological well-being outcomes and its factors, among childless women at middle age and beyond. Finally, after pointing out the issues of previous research, it provides new directions for future research, especially, in Japan.