A Critical Review of Studies on Shadow Education in Japan
70 , 2016-03-31 , 東京大学大学院教育学研究科
In this paper, the chronological trend of studies on shadow education in the sociology of education in Japan was examined. Based on this examination, future directions are then presented for consideration. Shadow education has been noted as a factor in the relation between educational achievement and social stratification in the 1970-80's in Japan. In the 1990s, based mainly on national survey data, it was found that educational investment and strategy influenced shadow education. Later, in the late 2000s, the amount of research and case studies that focused on shadow education increased. Currently, by controlling endogeneity biases, studies have been conducted in an attempt to identify causal effects of shadow education. In conclusion, for future consideration, within research on shadow education, it is necessary to clearly distinguish between the different terms used for shadow education (“out of school education”, and “private supplementary tutoring”) within the Japanese language.