||義浄訳『金光明最勝王経』について : 第24章「除病品」付加部分を中心として
A Study on the Enlarged Part in Yijing’s Chinese Translation of Suvarṇaprabhāsottamasūtra [in Japanese]
56 , 2015-03-31 , 東京大学大学院人文社会系研究科・文学部インド哲学仏教学研究室
Among the several transmissions which are called by the name of the Sūtra of Golden Light, one that represented by Jin guangming zuisheng wang jing (金光明最勝王経) translated by Yijing (義浄) in 703 ce. is the most enlarged one including not a few later additions. In the 24th capter called "Healing illness," chubing pin (除病品), it has a body of the verses explaining the method of medical examination and treatment, which are held in all the transmissions except the last additional verses unique in Yijing’s version. This paper is a research on these additional verses, aiming at concluding whether these have had the original text in Indian language, or these are the quotation from other texts or the creation made by Yijing himself. As preceding studies have shown, Yijing held his translating group including two Indian monks, Manicintana and Śrīmata, or at least one of them, in charge of reading and verifying the meanings of the original text in Indian language. Thus we can remove the doubt on Yijing’s ability of comprehension in Indian language, which some studies have pointed. Then we examine the small additions which J. Nobel, who edited the Sanskrit, Tibetan and also Yijing’s version of this sūtra, pointed as unique in Yijing’s. Also we check the features of the large additions regarded to be made in India, such as the verses of praise for Sarasvatī found in 15th capter, da biancai tiannu pin (大弁才天女品). Thus we can admit that the small additions can be made by Yijing’s group in order to enhance readability, not to adopt any new idea. Then we examine the additional verses in the capter of "Healing illness," dividing into four themes, which are "the eight branches of Āyurveda (Indian classical medicine)," "the examination in one’s type of doṣa," "the sign of death" and "the medicine." On "the eight branches" and "the sign of death," we can find well corresponding descriptions in orthodox Āyurvedic documents, such as Carakasam. hitā, Suśrutasam. hitā, etc.. On "the examination in one’s type of doṣa," on the contrary, we can find the correspondences in the Buddhist Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa (=MMK), with more detailed description. Moreover on the accounts of the typical dreams for three doṣas in it, we can find another correspondence in Atharvavedapari śiṣt.a (=AVP). Thus we can infer that Yijing’s additional verses of this part had the original text in Indian language, which held similar contents to MMK and AVP but thoroughly shortened. On "the medicine," we can find many similar definitions both in the Buddhist and non-Buddhist documents. The best correspondence would be the description in the Buddhist Vinaya texts. Through above investigation, we conclude that this additional verses in the chapter of "Healing illness" in Yijing’s Sūtra of Golden Light would have had the original text defunct now and never be the creation by Yijing and his translating group.