Departmental Bulletin Paper 「人の場所化」に関する日中対照研究 : 「起点」「所有者」「動作主」
The Localization of Persons in Chinese and Japanese" : "Source", "Possessor", and "Agent

鄭, 若曦

36 ( . )  , pp.219 - 237 , 2015-09-30 , 東京大学大学院人文社会系研究科・文学部言語学研究室
It is well known that both Chinese and Japanese "localize" persons functioning as the source of physical motion in the sense that nominals referring to persons acting in that capacity are most likely to be accompanied by "notokoro" or "那儿". If the predicate verb means "taking or receiving", there is a marked contrast between the two languages: while the localization of persons serving as sources is obligatory in Chinese, Japanese prefers to leave those persons serving as sources unlocalized. This paper is intended to show how this contrast is related to the different ways the Chinese and Japanese constructions construe the same event. After carefully examining the problems with a previous study based on transitivity, I emphasize the importance of the metaphorical semantic relationship among source, possessor and agent. I propose that the Chinese construction with a localized person focuses on "the object's motion", with the localized person merely designating the source of motion. In contrast, the focus of the Japanese construction with an unlocalized person is either on "the transfer of possession" or on "one person's action performed on another", with the person in question viewed as the possessor or the agent.
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