Departmental Bulletin Paper Metaphors We Don’t Live By : 現代英語母語話者はbyの時空間メタファーを使って生きているか
Metaphors We Don’t Live By : Do Contemporary Speakers of English Exploit Sapatio-temporal Metaphor When Using the Preposition by in Its Temporal Senses?

平沢, 慎也

36 ( . )  , pp.39 - 55 , 2015-09-30 , 東京大学大学院人文社会系研究科・文学部言語学研究室
One could recognize a spatio-temporal metaphor between some spatial and temporal uses of the preposition by in present-day English. But this does not mean that contemporary speakers map their knowledge of the spatial uses onto the domain of time every time they use temporal by (i.e. that they conduct a relevant on line computation in each utterance), or that the temporal uses are not entrenched in their memory. Rather, a close inspection of each individual use of by reveals that they, more plausibly, have a vast range of highly specific knowledge on both spatial and temporal uses. The present article confirms this conclusion by comparing the spatial-passage use of by with the temporal-passage use. These two uses are so similar to each other that they are probably the best candidates in many uses of by for a spatio-temporal pair where the temporal use appears to be derived online from the spatial use. But even they yield to thorough investigation, and reveal their own peculiar properties which point to the possibility of the temporal knowledge being independent of, rather than derived from, the spatial knowledge. The online-metaphor-computation hypothesis, therefore, does not bear scrutiny at least as far as by is concerned.
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