||近代ドイツにおける「ユダヤ教」をめぐる思想 : M. メンデルスゾーンとA. ガイガーの事例を通して
Jewish Thought about "Judaism" in Modern Germany : The Cases of M.Mendelssohn and A. Geiger
156 , 2015-03-31 , 東京大学文学部宗教学研究室
This paper examines how Jewish thinkers in modern Germany considered traditional ‘‘Judaism’’ in confrontation with Enlightenment (Haskalah) and Jewish emancipation. To resolve the problem of contradiction between the law of the state and Jewish law, Moses Mendelssohn (1729-86) invented the idea that “Judaism is a religion.” Namely, he defined Judaism originally based on law and practice, as a religion, but it concerns only the belief and faith of individuals and is thus not incompatible with the nation-state and its politics. Abraham Geiger (1810-74) and his colleagues, who were oriented toward the reform of Judaism, inherited and developed Mendelssohn’s idea that “Judaism is a religion.” Geiger reflected on the essence of Judaism in the modern world, making reference to historical science. He thought that Judaism is the religion that has always made progress through history, and that its essence is universality, spiritual achievement, and ethical contribution toward Western civilization. As a result, Geiger tried to disregard the “national” aspects of Judaism such as messianic hope, and to define Jews not as a nation but as a religious group based on common belief, in order to justify symbiosis between the German state and Judaism. But, at the same time, Geiger seemed to find the strength of Judaism in its past national life, its own language, and its history. I think that Geiger tried to overcome the contradiction between universality and particularity in Judaism, which Mendelssohn also faced, by introducing a historical viewpoint. In conclusion, by producing new understanding about “Judaism,” these thinkers tried to restore its dignity.