73 , 2015-03-31 , 東京大学文学部宗教学研究室 , Department of Religious Studies. The University of Tokyo , 東京大学大学院
論文/Articles Why did Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), a Goethe scholar and a doctor of philosophy, became initiated into occultism and Theosophy? To answer this question, I consider his existential circumstances from 1890 to 1902, in which he devoted himself to anarchism under the influences of Max Stirner and Nietzsche. The “individualistic anarchism” he proposed proclaimed belief in the excellence of “genuine self” freed from institutional suppressions and stereotypical ideas. Steiner, as an individualistic anarchist, associated with various bohemians and theosophists, and joined the Theosophical Society. Despite the philosophical differences between anarchism and theosophy, he employed similar strategies in both. His theosophy purports to reveal spiritual dimensions and potentials, said to be concealed in the world and humankind, or repressed by mainstream materialist society. His anarchism also propagates liberation from various forms of oppression. Moreover, he reinforced the anarchistic ideal of “genuine self” and refined it as “higher self,” which he claimed can be attained gradually by “geistige Schulung” (spiritual training) in the Theosophical sense. Considering similarities between his anarchistic and theosophical strategies helps to reveal why Steiner, who based his philosophy on absolute confidence in oneself, would become an initiate of Theosophy.