||神殿供犠から啓示法へ : 一神教の歴史におけるラビ・ユダヤ教の意義
From the Temple Sacrifices to the Devine Law : The Significance of Rabbinic Judaism in the History of Monotheistic Religions
19 , 2015-03-31 , 東京大学文学部宗教学研究室
Palestine of the post Second Temple era witnessed the emerging transformation of modes of Jewish religious consciousness. With the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 C.E., Judaism, whose form of worship revolved around the Temple sacrificial cult during the Second Temple period, underwent a significant development in the orientation of the divine law, the Halakhah. This historical development eventually served as a forerunner of the divine law of the Islamic religion, Sharia. In contrast, the Roman Empire did not develop divine law as a major mode of its religiosity, despite abolishing animal sacrifice as a primary form of worship with the acceptance of Christianity as its State religion. In this paper, I examine the significance and meaning of the Jewish divine law, the Halakhah in the context of the history of monotheistic religions. It does not mean, however, that Rabbinic Judaism rendered obsolete the concept of the Temple sacrificial cult or deemed it an insignificant form of Jewish worship and practice. The Sages, on the contrary, strived to give theological explanations for the lack of the Temple sacrifices. By paying special attention to the concept of the deeds of loving-kindness and prayer as substitution for the Temple sacrifices, I show how divine law served as a means by which Jews could engage with the sacred in their religious consciousness.