Departmental Bulletin Paper サハリン新石器時代前期スラブナヤ5遺跡の発掘調査報告
A Report on Archaeological Excavations at the Early Neolithic Site of Slavnaya-5, Sakhalin Island, Russia

福田, 正宏  ,  グリシェンコ, V.  ,  ワシレフスキー, A.  ,  大貫, 静夫  ,  熊木, 俊朗  ,  國木田, 大  ,  森先, 一貴  ,  佐藤, 宏之  ,  モジャエフ, A.  ,  パシェンツェフ, P.  ,  ペレグドフ, A.  ,  役重, みゆき  ,  夏木, 大吾  ,  髙鹿, 哲大

29pp.121 - 146 , 2015-03-29 , 東京大学大学院人文社会系研究科・文学部考古学研究室
2013 年、東京大学考古学研究室とサハリン国立大学考古学・民族学研究所は、サハリン島スラブナヤ5 遺跡第3 発掘区において発掘調査を実施した。基本層序は、Ⅰ層:表土、Ⅱ層:新石器時代前期文化層、Ⅲ層:地山(基盤層)である。ほとんどの層は埋没後攪拌の影響を大きく受けているが、北側拡張区のⅡ層下部で、炭化物・灰や遺物が堆積するピット状遺構が検出された。出土木炭の14C 年代は7500 ~ 7100BP に集中する。出土石器のリダクション・モードは、石刃・両面体・磨製石器リダクションからなり、細石刃リダクションは稀である。石刃鏃、石鏃、彫器、掻器、削器、石錐、両面加工石器、磨製石錐、磨製石鑿、磨製棒状石器、石斧、砥石からなる。北海道の石刃鏃石器群との類似性が認められる一方、アムール下流域のヤミフタ遺跡と共通する磨製石器類をもつことが特徴である。出土土器は、2006・2008 年調査第1、第2 発掘区古段階の一群と共通する。内面条痕をもつ胴部片がある。これらの土器は、スラブナヤ4 遺跡例と宗仁式(新石器時代中期:同5 遺跡新段階)との間に位置づけられる。スラブナヤ4・5 遺跡出土土器の付着炭化物の14C 年代は、4 遺跡(8500-7660BP)→ 5 遺跡古段階(7825-7040BP)→同新段階(7245-6670BP)となる。5 遺跡古段階は、道東オホーツク海側に石刃鏃や平底条痕文系土器がひろがる時期とほぼ並行する。サハリン-北海道間における社会的文化的関係性を解明するには、居住形態等とともに石器組成と土器製作法を両地域間で比較した議論が今後必要とされる。
The eastern part of the Slavnaya-5 site, South Sakhalin Island, Russia, was excavated in 2013 (Excavation #3) (Fig. 1). This study was conducted through the Japan and Russia Academic Exchange Agreement, concluded between the Department of Archaeology, University of Tokyo, and the Laboratory of Archaeology and Ethnography, Sakhalin State University. The stratigraphy at Excavation #3 comprised Layer I: surface, Layer II: the Early Neolithic cultural horizon and Layer III: natural ground (bedrock). A high level of post burial disturbance (modern cultivation, tree roots, etc.) was observed in most layers. However, in the lower part of Layer II, Large Pit 1 and Pits 1 and 2 were discovered along the southern zone of the excavation. These are depressions with scatters of carbon, ash and artifacts. The 14C dates of the wood charcoal samples fall between 7500-7100 BP. (Tab. 1). Lithic assemblages are characterized mainly by reduction modes for blades, bifaces, and ground stone tools (Fig. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; PL. 3). Microblade reduction is not evident here. The lithic assemblage includes blade arrowheads, arrowheads, burins, endscrapers, sidescrapers, drills, bifaces, chipped axes, ground axes, ground drills, ground chisels, other ground tools, and grinding stones. The similarity with the ‘Blade Arrowhead Industry’ of Hokkaido is observed. On the other hand, similar ground stone tools were found at the Early Neolithic site of Yamikhta in the Lower Amur. The pottery making technology resembles that of the early group from Excavations #1 and #2 (2006, 2008), and linear incisions on the inner body are observed (PL. 2). This group can be situated between the Slavnaya-4 complex and the Middle Neolithic Soni type pottery (Late group of Slavnaya-5). The 14C dates from charred remains on pottery from the Slavnaya 4 and 5 sites fall into three stages, which are as follows:- the Slavnaya-4 stage (8500-7660 BP), the Early Slavnaya-5 stage (7825-7040 BP), and the Late Slavnaya-5 stage (7245-6670 BP). The Early Slanvnaya-5 stage of the Sakhalin Island is almost contemporary with the period of expansion of the complex of blade arrowheads and flat bottomed pottery with linear incisions in the Okhotsk Area of Hokkaido Island. However, debating socio-cultural relationships between the two islands would require further comparisons of the lithic assemblages and pottery making techniques, including aspects of the settlement system and other features.

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