Journal Article 判断が流動的な社会問題を多面的・多角的に考え続ける態度を育む「議論活動」の検討 : 我が国の食料自給率をめぐる議論活動の分析を通して
Developing Critical Thinking and the Ability to Think from Multiple Perspectives Using Class Discussion Activities about Controversial Social Issues

大村, 龍太郎

(6)  , pp.77 - 87 , 2018-03-31 , 初等教育カリキュラム学会
ISSN:2187-6800
NCID:AA12611299
Description
本研究の目的は,小学校社会科学習において,判断が流動的な社会問題を多面的・多角的に考え続ける態度を育むための議論活動の仕組み方や手立てを検討することである。判断の根拠となる要素が多様かつ社会情勢で変化しやすかったり,重視する要素の違いが判断に大きく影響したりする社会問題の場合,問題に対する判断(結論)はその時々で流動的である。よって,ある時点での判断力だけでなく,多面的・多角的に考え続ける態度の育成が必要となる。食料自給率をめぐる議論活動の実践をもとに検討した結果,「議論活動において一人一人の児童が多面的・多角的に考えられるように,各自の主張やその根拠である視点や視座を交流したうえで,他者から得た別の視点や視座で考えなおすことを促す発問を行う」「児童が自分の考えを見つめなおす契機となる新たな視点や視座を生み出す資料提示を行う」などを含む議論前,議論中の5点の手立てが有効であるといえる。
This paper will propose a method for developing critical thinking skills and the ability to think from multiple perspectives using elementary school class discussion activities about controversial social issues.For students who live in a changing society, it is important to develop not only judgment abilities but also the ability to think from multiple perspectives about social issues. To help students develop these skills, this research found that teachers need to do the following :・Start each unit in a way that makes students want to discuss the social issue. For example, introduce two researchers with different opinions.・Before the discussion, provide various materials to the students for thinking from multiple perspectives, and give enough time for students to research and think.・During the discussion, advise students to change the perspective underlying their ideas so that each of them can think from multiple perspectives.・During the discussion, provide thinking tools that help students think from multiple perspectives. For example, provide the Pluses, Minuses and Interesting (PMI) chart. (Advise students to use the PMI chart to evaluate an issue, compare advantages and disadvantages, and make decisions. )・During the discussion, if the students persist in their opinions, present new materials so that students want to reconsider the social issue from another perspective.
Full-Text

http://ir.lib.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/files/public/4/45481/20180406141647473541/JEEC_6_77.pdf

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