Research in psychology has traditionally focused on individuals experiencing crisis and adversity in an attempt to understand the various mental illnesses resulting from such events. However, in recent years, the importance of individual adaptability has been increasingly emphasized. Resilience, which focuses on the “individual characteristics necessary for recovery” and the “recovery process” has been the subject of much recent research attention. However, because the history of resilience research is relatively short and its definition is not yet unified among researchers, resilience is currently not organized as a comprehensive research field. The current study sought to clarify trends in resilience research in Japan and to clarify future issues and prospects, after examining the various definitions of resilience. Resilience research often regards resilience as a trait necessary for recovery and a process resulting from the interaction of protective factors that are internal and external to the individual. In addition, resilience studies are characterized by considering an individual’s adaptive state and degree of psychiatric dysfunction as indicators of recovery. Resilience research in Japan has often focused on individual characteristics. It is important to examine dynamic interactions between individual and environmental factors, considering social background and the contextual nature of the recovery process. In addition, it may be necessary to capture recovery not only in terms of the degree of symptoms, but also to examine the aspects of recovery of individuals in detail from the perspective of “meaning making”.