Journal Article 教職課程後半期における教員志望学生の社会科観・授業構成力の形成過程 : 「洗い流し」はいつどのように起こるのか,あるいは回避されるのか

大坂, 遊

(5)  , pp.81 - 102 , 2017-03-31 , 学習システム促進研究センター (RIDLS)
ISSN:2189-9487
Description
 近年,教員養成カリキュラムの改革の潮流を受けて,「実践知の形成と継承」を志向する「学校ベース」の養成カリキュラムを導入する大学が注目されている。一方で,そのような養成カリキュラムに対して,教員養成カリキュラムで学んだ先進的な教育理論が臨床経験を通して棄却されていく「洗い流し」の視点からの批判もなされている。はたして,中等社会科教員を志望する学生は,教員養成の段階でどのような「洗い流し」の機会にさらされるのか,どうすれば「洗い流し」を回避しうるのか。本稿ではこの2 点を検討するために,国立X 大学教育学部の3 年次の学生3 名に対して,2 年間にわたる縦断的な聞き取り調査と授業プラン分析を実施し,学生の社会科観と授業構成力の形成・変容の過程を調査した。分析の結果,①教職課程後半期の中等社会科教員志望学生は,学習指導案の書き方といった形式的な授業構成力を順調に向上させていくこと,②教育実習やその後の教科教育系の演習科目を通して,自身の社会科観を実現する力量の不足を自覚した学生は,社会科観の再検討を模索するようになること,③教員養成カリキュラムが期待する資質・能力像に共感できない学生や,入職後に直面する教育課題を具体的にイメージできる学生ほど,理想とする社会科観の継続的な追求を断念するようになること,の3 点が明らかとなった。最後にこれらの成果をふまえて,3 年次後期から4 年次前期にかけて,個々の学生が抱えている課題や実現したい理想の社会科観を授業プランに具体化させ,実際に附属学校や連携協力校における実践を通して検証し改善していく,少人数の演習形式の授業科目の導入を提案した。
In recent years, there has been a trend toward reforming teacher training curriculum, so a lot of attention is being paid to universities that are introducing “school based” training curriculum that is intended to “create and pass on practical knowledge.” However, this sort of training curriculum has been criticized based on the perspective that the advanced educational theory that is learned in the teacher training curriculum is abandoned or “washed out” through clinical experiences. So, what types of opportunities for “washed out” are the students who intend to be secondary social studies teachers exposed to during teacher training and how can this “washed out” be avoided? To address these two questions, this study investigated the process by which students’ views on social studies and their ability to structure lessons were developed. This was done by performing a lesson plan analysis and conducting a longitudinal interview survey over 2 years on 3 third year students in the department of education at national university X. The results of this analysis revealed the following three facts : 1) students in the last half of the teacher training course who want to become secondary social studies teachers do well at improving their formal ability to structure lessons (i.e. their way of writing lesson plans); 2) students who become aware of the inadequacy of their own ability to implement their own view of social studies through teaching practice or subsequent practical subjects at the end of the teacher-training curriculum start to reexamine their views on social studies; and 3) students who cannot empathize with the ideal qualities or abilities expected in the teacher training curriculum and students who are more able to concretely imagine the educational problems they will face after starting work will abandon continuously pursuing their own ideal view of social studies. Finally, based on these results, t his p aper p roposed that the issues that individual students have or their ideal view of social studies that they want to create should be solidified in lesson plans. It also proposed that practical seminar courses with only a few people should be introduced so that students can examine and improve themselves through actual practice at affiliated or cooperating schools.
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