Journal Article 社会科教師志望学生の授業プランニング能力はいかにして学習されるのか : 大学入学後の能力向上の要因と支援策

大坂, 遊  ,  渡邉, 巧  ,  金, 鍾成  ,  草原, 和博

(1)  , pp.30 - 46 , 2015-03-31 , 学習システム促進研究センター (RIDLS)
ISSN:2189-9487
Description
大学の教員養成課程で学生に「よい授業」のあり方を主体的に探求させるには,まず大学での授業と高校までに受けてきた授業との「ギャップ」を解消し,被教育体験の中で無意識に形づくられた「こだわり」を「解きほぐす」必要があるのではないか。このような問題意識のもと,本研究では大学入学後の講義で,自分がこれまで支持してきた授業理論とは異なるそれを受け入れて質の高い授業プランを作成できた学生に注目し,「彼らはなぜ授業プランニング能力を向上させることができたのか」について調査・分析を試みた。調査対象者3名の授業プランの分析と聞き取り調査の結果から,能力向上の要因として,①他者の目的合理的な授業プランに啓発されることで,自己の授業づくりの省察と洗練がはかられたこと,②目的の異なる複数の授業理論を学ぶことで,自己の教科観や授業理論の相対化が進んだこと,③高校時代に履修していない科目・分野(地理)には「こだわり」が小さく,むしろ自立的・目的合理的に教育内容を構想できたこと,の3点が確認された。さらに,社会科の授業プランニング能力の向上を支援するには,第一に,大学での講義を通じてソトから「よい授業」を押しつけるのではなく,他者の優れた授業を批評したり,自分で授業を作ったりする経験を通して,学生自身が潜在的に抱いている「よい授業」の規準や葛藤をウチから引き出すこと,第二に,学生が学ぶ意義を実感できていない科目・分野を素材にして,教科の目標に準拠した教材研究や内容構成を行う意義を理解させること,これら2点を意識した指導の可能性が示唆された。
To have students in university teacher education courses independently explore what a “good lesson” is, there is a need to first eliminate the gap between university courses and courses students have taken up through high school and disentangle the formalities unconsciously shaped during their K-12 experiences. Keeping this in mind, this study focuses on students who, after enrolling in university classes, have accepted a theory of teaching different from that which they had supported up until then. These students were able to create high-quality lesson plans, and this study investigates and analyzes why they were able to heighten their lesson planning skills. Based on analyses of the lesson plans of three students and interviews with them, the following three points were identified: (1)students tried to reflect upon and refine their own lesson plans by being enlightened by others’ purpose-rational lesson plans, (2)their own views of social studies and theories of teaching were relativized by learning about multiple theories of teaching with different goals, and (3)they had little formality with regard to the subjects and fields (geography) that they had not taken during high school. Rather, they were able to independently envision educational content in a purpose-rational fashion. Furthermore, our findings suggest the potential of guidance for supporting the improvement of social studies lesson planning skills that first, draws from within students criteria and conflicts with regard to the their own latently-held ideas of a “good lesson” through the experience of evaluating exceptional classes taught by others and creating their own lessons (rather than forcing upon them good lessons from the outside through university classes), and second, makes them understand the importance of engaging in teaching materials study and content construction in accordance with subject objectives, using as material subjects and fields that students have not fully understood the importance of.
本論文は,Theory and Research for Developing Learning Systems, Vol.1 所収の英語論文 “How Do Social Studies Pre-Service Teachers’ Learn Lesson Planning Skills?” pp.13-18 の日本語訳論文である。
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http://ir.lib.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/files/public/39107/2016022611184336521/TRDLS-jpn_1_30.pdf

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