||Effects of embryonic responses to clutch mates on egg hatching patterns of Pentatomidae (Heteroptera)
Endo, JunNumata, Hideharu
417 , 2017-12 , Wiley-Blackwell
Stink bugs and shield bugs of the family Pentatomidae (Heteroptera) generally produce a clutch of densely deposited eggs. In a few species of this family, embryos hatch in response to some form of cues associated with the preceding hatching to synchronize egg hatching with clutch mates. The aim of the present study is to obtain a family-wide understanding of the extent to which the hatching response to clutch mates accelerates hatching within egg clutches. Accordingly, the hatching patterns in intact egg clutches and eggs individually detached from egg clutches are compared in eight species among different genera. In Halyomorpha halys, hatching is significantly and highly synchronized by the effect of the hatching response: when eggs are not attached to each other, the hatching rate is only 3.8% at 15 min and exceeds 95% at 200 min. By contrast, when eggs are attached to each other, the hatching rate reaches more than 95% at 15 min. Hatching is also significantly synchronized by the hatching response in Nezara viridula (which shows relatively high hatching synchronization) and in Piezodorus hybneri and Plautia stali (both of which show milder hatching synchronization). Synchronization of hatching is not found to be promoted by a hatching response in Aelia fieberi, Dolycoris baccarum, Eurydema rugosum or Palomena angulosa. These findings reveal that the hatching response varies depending on the species in Pentatomidae, with a wide spectrum of effects on the hatching patterns of the egg clutches.