||Mining of the Uncharacterized Cytochrome P450 Genes Involved in Alkaloid Biosynthesis in California Poppy Using a Draft Genome Sequence
Hori, Kentaro ,
Yamada, Yasuyuki ,
Purwanto, Ratmoyo ,
Minakuchi, Yohei ,
Toyoda, Atsushi ,
Hirakawa, HidekiSato, Fumihiko
Plant and Cell Physiology
233 , 2018-02-01 , Oxford University Press (OUP)
ハナビシソウゲノムの解読から見えてきたイソキノリンアルカロイド生合成酵素遺伝子の進化 --植物が有用物質生産系を進化させる仕組みの解読--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2018-01-26.
Land plants produce specialized low molecular weight metabolites to adapt to various environmental stressors, such as UV radiation, pathogen infection, wounding and animal feeding damage. Due to the large variety of stresses, plants produce various chemicals, particularly plant species-specific alkaloids, through specialized biosynthetic pathways. In this study, using a draft genome sequence and querying known biosynthetic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme-encoding genes, we characterized the P450 genes involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA) biosynthesis in California poppy (Eschscholzia californica), as P450s are key enzymes involved in the diversification of specialized metabolism. Our in silico studies showed that all identified enzyme-encoding genes involved in BIA biosynthesis were found in the draft genome sequence of approximately 489 Mb, which covered approximately 97% of the whole genome (502 Mb). Further analyses showed that some P450 families involved in BIA biosynthesis, i.e. the CYP80, CYP82 and CYP719 families, were more enriched in the genome of E. californica than in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant that does not produce BIAs. CYP82 family genes were highly abundant, so we measured the expression of CYP82 genes with respect to alkaloid accumulation in different plant tissues and two cell lines whose BIA production differs to estimate the functions of the genes. Further characterization revealed two highly homologous P450s (CYP82P2 and CYP82P3) that exhibited 10-hydroxylase activities with different substrate specificities. Here, we discuss the evolution of the P450 genes and the potential for further genome mining of the genes encoding the enzymes involved in BIA biosynthesis.