Departmental Bulletin Paper <特集論文 2>身体装飾をめぐる子ども・大人・社会の交渉
Negotiation among Children, Adults, and, Society on Body Decorations

風戸, 真理

9 ( 2017 )  , pp.347 - 366 , 2017-12-31 , 京都大学大学院人間・環境学研究科 文化人類学分野
ISSN:2188-5974
NCID:AA12260795
Description
本論では、装い(ドレス)の中でもとくに装飾機能の強い身体装飾に焦点を当て、日本の女性の子どもがおこなう身体装飾の時間変化、その過程で直面する葛藤、そしてやがて大人になった女性の身体装飾と社会の関係を記述した。その上で、身体装飾に関する子ども・大人・社会の交渉と、審美性をめぐる規範・流行・便宜について考察した。なお身体装飾は、アクセサリーの着用、身体彩色(化粧)、身体変工(ピアス、タトゥーなど)の3つに分類した。結果としては、第一に、現代日本の子どもの身体装飾は学校という制度の中で、化粧を端緒として開始されていた。そこでは審美性や娯楽性とともに、校則への抵抗、教師との交渉、仲間との同調や差異化などの社会関係が重視されていた。第二に、身体装飾は学校・アルバイト・就職活動・親との関係において抑制されていた。とくに身体変工をめぐっては、外的な抑制、内的な抑制、身体的な困難が葛藤要因となっていた。第三に、大人の身体装飾と社会との関係については、流行歌の歌詞を分析した結果、最も日本社会に親和的なのは身体彩色であったが、ピアスやタトゥーに関しても豊かな表現が見られた。アクセサリーを外す行為は私的な親密さを帯びた身体の出現を示し、装身具には公私をスイッチングする道具としての機能が認められた。審美性の観点から、身体装飾をめぐる規範・流行・便宜の関係について検討すると次のことがいえるだろう。人びとは環境とのすり合わせにより社会適応的な装身の輪郭を探り、その範囲内で他者との差異化を図ったり、流行に同調したりすることをおしゃれとして楽しんでいた。また、身体変工には逸脱を含む多様な意味づけがなされていたが、身体の審美的価値を効率的に高めるために、身体変工の実利性、便宜性が評価される側面もみいだされた。
This paper focuses on body decorations that are superior in aesthetic functions among dress and describes the chronological process of the Japanese female children's body decorations, conflicts they face in that process, and the relationship between adult women's body decorations and society. Then, it discusses how children, adults, and society negotiate on body decorations and how social norms, fashion, and convenience are related to aesthetic values. Body decorations were classified into accessories, body painting (makeup) and mutilation (piercing and tattooing). As for the results, firstly, children started to decorate their body during their school years with makeup. Besides aesthetic and amusement, their makeup had social meanings, such as resisting school regulations, negotiating with teachers, sympathizing with friends, and differentiating themselves from others. Secondly, body decorations were restrained in schools, part-time work places, the job-hunting process, and the relationship with parents. In other words, children had conflicts with external regulations, internal norms, and physical difficulties, especially with mutilation. Thirdly, about adult women's body decorations, based on the analysis of popular song lyrics, makeup was the most suitable to Japanese society, though tattoos and pierced earrings were attractively expressed in songs. In addition, as the behavior of taking off accessories represented the body with a private intimacy, accessories were used as tools to switch between public and private modes by taking them on and off. After examining the relationships among norms, fashion, and convenience in regard to bodily decoration, the following can be concluded from the viewpoint of aesthetics. People searched the outline of suitable dress through negotiation with their environment to enjoy differentiating themselves from others and to catch up with fashion. Mutilation, for which multiple meanings, including deviation, were given, was evaluated by its profitability and convenience to efficiently increase the aesthetic values of their body.
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