124 , 2016-03 , Japan Neurosurgical Society
“Once development was ended…in the adult centers, the nerve paths are something fixed and immutable. Everything may die, nothing may be regenerated, ” wrote Santiago Ramón y Cajal, a Spanish neuroanatomist and Nobel Prize winner and the father of modern neuroscience. This statement was the central dogma in neuroscience for a long time. However, in the 1960s, neural stem cells (NSCs) were discovered. Since then, our knowledge about NSCs has continued to grow. This review focuses on our current knowledge about NSCs and their surrounding microenvironment. In addition, the clinical application of NSCs for the treatment of various central nervous system diseases is also summarized.