<ARTICLES> Social Movement of African American Residents in Hawai‘i : Through Analysis of the Martin Luther King Jr. Day Celebration<ARTICLES> Social Movement of African American Residents in Hawai‘i : Through Analysis of the Martin Luther King Jr. Day CelebrationAA11273113 [論説] ハワイのアフリカ系住民の市民運動 -マ-ティン・ル-サ-・キング・ジュニアデ-の祝賀の考察を通して-
January was designated as the MLK Day celebration week. I utilize two Honolulu daily newspapers, the Honolulu Adviser and the Honolulu Star-Bulletin, which merged in 2010 to form the Honolulu Star-Advertiser, an African American monthly newspaper in Hawai?i, the Afro-Hawai‘i News, and the annual brochures of MLK Day celebration to analyze their activities. The first part of this essay traces the history of organizers to promote MLK Day celebration activities in Hawai?i. This part explores how African American residents in Hawai?i effected the creation of the MLK Day state commission as Coretta King, chair of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Federal Holiday Commission, requested during her visit to Hawai?i in 1987. Later, it examines how they have carried out the annual celebration events every year up to the present after the state commission concluded its term the office. The second part focuses on the activities during the MLK Day celebration week in Hawai?i. Richard Merelman has clarified differences between whites- and black-organized MLK Day celebration activities. He argues that while white Americans project black culture positively, they often avoid addressing the issue of white domination and black resistance. 7） On the other hand, African Americans recognize themselves as victims of white supremacy and may fail to embrace political agency that challenges their oppression. 8） By examining each activity, this part considers how MLK Day has been celebrated in Hawai?i and residents of Hawai?i have “consumed” or understood King and the Black Freedom Movement. Finally, this paper aims to uncover subjectivities and solidarity of African Americans in Hawai?i. Due to their small population?2.5 percent of the total population on the islands 9） ?and their status as “non-locals, ” 10） African Americans have been marginalized in multicultural Hawai?i. In addition, African American residents are considered as “non-locals” in Hawai?i because of their association with the military 11） and the socially constructed racial lines between blacks and non-blacks. 12） The “non-local” status has had negatively affected African American residents in Hawai?i. Kimetta R. Hairston shows African American military dependent school children?s claim that they have to dismiss their own identity as African Americans and follow Hawai?i?s cultural practices to be included in the local society as they navigate the complexity of race relations beyond black/white racial paradigm.