||Effects of a Macro-Roughness Element on Tsunami Wave Amplification, Pressures, and Loads: Physical Model and Comparison to Japanese and US Design Equations
Tomiczek, Tori ,
Prasetyo, Adi ,
Mori, Nobuhito ,
Yasuda, TomohiroKennedy, Andrew
Coastal Engineering Journal
2017-03 , World Scientific Publishing
Experiments were conducted at a 1:20 length scale in a large tsunami flume to measure wave evolution and pressures on and around structural elements. The water surface profiles of waves propagating across a bare beach were compared with those recorded in front of an onshore obstacle representing an urban macro-roughness element. The addition of a structure significantly changed the water surface profile for broken waves: the water surface amplification in the presence of a macro-roughness element reached seven times the bare-earth water surface elevation. Estimated pressures from design equations were calculated using recommended inputs and compared with pressures recorded by gauges installed on the structural elements. Design equations showed good agreement for non-breaking wave pressures but underestimated peak pressures for breaking waves. Likewise, force integrations of measured pressures on the experimental specimen indicated that design equations may underestimate loads due to waves that break offshore and propagate across a beach as a turbulent bore. The time-integrated pressure impulse was shown to be less sensitive to wave characteristics than the peak recorded pressures. Time-averaged loading curves were also developed for different average periods.