特集3: 雲南懇話会からの寄稿 = Special Issue 3: Contribution from the Yunnan Forum 本誌公刊にあたっては、京都大学学士山岳会、京都大学「霊長類学・ワイルドライフサイエンス」・リーディング大学院からの助成をうけました。 There are numerous sacred places in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. They range from Hindu and/or Buddhist temples to open-field plots with crude stones (representing digu dyah or an agnatic-group deity). Deities of different origins converge on an image or an object in some cases, making it difficult to discern between various beliefs. Hindu and Buddhist deities, after introduced to Nepal (or Kathmandu Valley), acquired their proper places to settle, which people often considered holier than their original abode. For example, Pashupati along the river Bagmati was chosen as the seat for Shiva and was said to be holier than Varanasi. Various theories intended to make the Kathmandu Valley sacred. To place Narayan (Vishnu) temples in four directions of the Valley is a typical example. This kind of theorization seems to have begun in ancient times, flourished in the mediaeval period and continued to the early modern era. Some such theories of the latter era remained as mere theories found in written texts. Seen from the village level, such theories mainly constructed by urban elites look foreign to villagers' daily practices and belief. Nepal has been changing drastically after 1950. The increase of religious diversity has given rise to new sacred places, secular ideas has been gaining ground, and metamorphosis of sacred places began due to various reasons including the spread of tourism.