Departmental Bulletin Paper 疑問付加語句の語用論的考察: 話し言葉のもつ特性を中心に
Pragmatic Analysis of German Tag Question: Characteristics of Spoken Language

木村, 英莉子

22pp.45 - 65 , 2016-12 , 京都大学大学院人間・環境学研究科言語科学講座
NCID:AA11467856
Description
This paper examines the proper use and occurrence conditions of German tag questions, “oder, ” “ne, ” and “ja” and analyzes the characters of spoken language. It has been shown that tag questions are often used in informal situations where the speaker asks for active communication. The proper use of German tag question is to show “empathy.” “Oder” is used when the speaker is cooperative with the hearer, and the speaker and the hearer share the same experience. In this case, the speaker asks empathy from the hearer and intention of the hearer is important. “Ne” is used when the speaker is cooperative with the hearer, and the speaker and the hearer do not have the same experience. As for this use, the speaker insists his/her opinion, and the intention of both of the speaker and the hearer are important. “Ja” is used when the speaker is persuasive with the hearer, and the speaker has confidence with his utterance and asks confirmation from the hearer; the intention of the speaker is important. These analyses suggest following three points, as the characters of the spoken language: (i) emotional distance between the speaker and the hearer can be changed, (ii) affection influence the selection of “oder”, “ne”, and “ja”, which do not show affection directly, and (iii) by expressing affection, the speaker can indirectly indicate his/her intention and ask the hearer for action.
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http://repository.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2433/219425/1/pls22_45.pdf

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