Departmental Bulletin Paper 1920−30 年代の聾唖者にみる「公民」概念の受容と抵抗-『 聾唖界』の手話をめぐる議論を中心に-
Acceptance and Resistance of the Concept of “ Koumin-Public Citizen” in the Case of Deaf People in 1920s-30s: Focus of Discussion about Sign Language on the Journal Rōa-kai

池田, 法子

63pp.379 - 391 , 2017-03-30 , 京都大学大学院教育学研究科
本論は、1920-30年代の日本社会で国民統合理念として掲げられた「公民」概念を、マイノリティ集団である聾唖者がいかに受容し、抵抗したか、その様相および葛藤を考察するものである。具体的には、当該時期の障害児教育の発展に貢献した川本宇之介の「公民」教育論と聾教育の関係を整理し、聾唖学校教員や農村部の女性等の様々な立場の聾唖者からの川本の議論に対する対応・反応を考察した。「公民」教育論は、自由や平等といった価値の拡張を理想とする「デモクラシー」を基調に行動する「公民」の育成を目的とし、教育の機会均等の観点から聾教育に連結した。聾学校卒業生・教員の立場では、その理念には共感が示されたが、実際の学校や日常生活場面での手話の合理性や心理的影響に関する反論があった。一方、経済的・精神的自立を重視する「公民」概念は、国家社会に有用な人材たるイデオロギーを含みつつも、労働・結婚の差別に直面した当事者に受容された。This paper examines how the concept of “Koumin – Public Citizen, ” which was proposed as an idea of unity of the Japanese people in the 1920s – 30s, was accepted or resisted by a minority group, the deaf. Focusing on Unosuke Kawamoto, who contributed to the development of education for people with disabilities during this period, his idea of “Koumin” education was clarified. Then, the reactions of various deaf people, such as teachers and alumni of schools for deaf children, and a woman living in rural area ware examined. Idea of “Koumin” education aimed to educate people as citizens capable of acting based on “democracy, ” which is an extension of the value of liberty and equality. In terms of equal educational opportunities, this concept was connected to the education of deaf children. Deaf alumni and teachers sympathized with the educational idea, but they objected that sign language was the rational and comfortable language for them. The concept of “Koumin” education stressed independence, and was accepted by deaf people who faced discrimination with regard to labor and marriage, involving the ideology of being useful to the Japanese nation.

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